(Geysers; Crustal Movements and Hot Spring: From mid-Meiji to early Showa era, from late 19th century to early 20th century)
A handful of physicists at the College of Science, Imperial University of Tokyo (the present Faculty of Science, University of Tokyo) also began conducting studies in field of hot springs. Just around the same time when the Department of Geology was established in the College of Science at Kyoto Imperial University where the main research on hot springs was conducted. This is one of the origins of hot spring-related geophysical studies.
Kotaro Honda (1870-1954), a former president of Tohoku Imperial University, was well-known for his contribution to the invention of the powerful permanent magnet – the KS Steel and the New KS Steel. As one may refer to him to as a world famous arbiter in steel and metal, Kotaro Honda also conducted research on hot springs and groundwater when he was starting his career as a researcher after graduating university in 1897. At the earliest stage of his research, he discovered the effect of atmospheric pressure changes and tide level changes in Tokyo Bay by observing and analyzing the fluctuation of water level in a well on the campus of Imperial University of Tokyo (1904).
Around that time, Honda's junior fellow, Torahiko Terada (1878-1935), a professor at the Imperial University of Tokyo, became his co-researcher. In 1906, they proposed the famous Hollow-model by observing and conducting model experiments on the Oyu geyser in Atami. Later, the Oyu geyser stopped erupting and a man-made geyser is constructed on the site.
A story about Kotaro Honda as told by Torahiko Terada.
Kotaro Honda was known to many as an unprecedented experiment enthusiast. Torahiko Terada’s student, Michitaka Uda (1905-1982), who was also a professor at Tokyo University of Marine Science, said the same. However, this quote is attributed to Professor Terada.
"Honda would observe hot springs at Atami in the winter and observe seiches at the seacoast in the summer. He would conduct experiments at the university late into the night every day. I learned that interest, passion and perseverance are the fundamentals of research from Mr. Honda" (taken from Dialogue with Torahiko Terada, published by Atene Bunko).
An oscillation in the water level of a lake or an inner bay area caused by wind blows etc. The cycle is influenced by the size and depth of the body of the water. There are three types of seiche cycles in Beppu Bay, 110-120 min, 10-20 min and 3-5 min; and the amplitudes are a few inches
Although Torahiko Terada earned his PhD in a unique field of research concerning the acoustics of the Shakuhachi bamboo flute, he also conducted research related to hot springs using a unique perspective.
For example, on the topic of the thermal source of hot springs, he discussed the possibility of heat generation from the crustal movements (1930). He analyzed the results of leveling, suggesting a correlation between subsidence of ground and the yield of hot spring water (1935) together with his student Naomi Miyabe (1901-1973), a professor at Nagoya University.